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The Noun: Cases

In the previous article it was mentioned, that the noun in Ukrainian language has seven cases. Here I would like to expand the topic, so that you can understand the purpose of cases and their meaning.

Why do we need cases?

We need them to show how the noun and other words in the sentence interact with each other. It is basically a grammatical category.

How to understand where to use a certain case?

You must put a certain question to a noun in the sentence. For example, in English you can put three kinds of questions to a noun depending on its role in the sentence.

The boy is playing with a kitten. (who? what?)

The word “boy” plays the role of a subject.

The boy hugged him. (who?/whom?)

The word “him” plays the role of a direct object.

His kitten.

The word “his” plays the role of a possessor. (whose?)

But in Ukrainian language you can put 6 types of questions.

Types of cases

Every case in Ukrainian language is named after a specific word which helps to identify the question needed to be put down to a noun, therefore children at school are taught to memorize the questions according to the names of the cases. I think that it would be a useful thing for you to put on notice this way.

Nominative case (Називний відмінок): хто? що?

The nominative case is the easiest one as it answers direct questions: who? and what?

The word “називний” is derived from Ukrainian “назва” (a name), so basically it is a dictionary form of a noun,

which names the object in the sentence:

His name is Oleh . — Його звати Oleг .

If a noun is a subject in the sentence, it has to be nominative case:

The girl is playing the piano. — Дівчинка грає на піаніно.

The book lies on the table. — Книжка лежить на столі.

If a noun is a part of a predicate (stays after a dash, which replaces “to be”):

He’s brother is a doctor . — Його брат — лікар .

I am a (male) student . — Я — студент .

Genitive case (Родовий відмінок): кого? чого?

The genitive case shows that something or somebody is possessing or not possessing to somebody or something else.

The word “родовий” is derived from Ukrainian “рід” (a gender, a generation) and the question you can put is: whose gender?, so

it’s basical purpose is to point out the possession, belonging, membership of the object:

The girl’s piano. — Піаніно дівчинки .

The back of the chair . — Спинка крісла .

He is a school principal (a principal of school ). — Він директор школи .

In some negative sentences:

I do not have a credit card . — У мене немає кредитної картки .

James cannot send the letter . — Джеймс не може відіслати листа .

Dative case (Давальний відмінок): кому? чому?

The word “давальний” is derived from Ukrainian “давати” (to give) and the question you can put is: to give to whom?

He gave a candy to a boy . — Він дав цукерку хлопчику .

or to show something to somebody, or to tell somebody something, or to explain, to present etc.:

Please, explain (to) sister this rule. — Будь ласка, поясни сестрі це правило.

He did not tell (to) his friend that secret. — Він не розказав своєму другові той секрет.

Accusative case (Знахідний відмінок): кого? що?

The word “знахідний” is derived from Ukrainian “знаходити” (to find) and the question you can put is: to search for whom? to search for what?,

in this case it is a direct object of a verb (action):

He is searching for mom . — Він шукає маму .

She is searching for a book . — Вона шукає книжку .

The student (pupil) has made his hometask . — Учень зробив своє домашнє завдання .

Instrumental case (Орудний відмінок): ким? чим?

This case is used when you want to express that someone or something is used by or works with smth or smb else.

The word “орудний” is derived from Ukrainian “орудувати” (to operate with, to handle with) and the question you can put is: who to handle with? what to handle with?

He paints with a brush . — Він малює пензликом .

with the preposition з(зі) (with):

Mother went to the theater with sister . — Мати пішла в театр з сестрою .

Travelling by transport or going on foot, walking along the street, city or other long distances:

I walk along this street every day. — Я гуляю цією вулицею щодня.

He went to France by car . — Він поїхав до Франції машиною .

When somebody is interested, engaged or involved in something (somebody):

His girlfriend is interested in history . — Його подруга цікавиться історією .

She is studying (is engaged in) classical music . — Вона займається класичною музикою .

Locative case (Місцевий відмінок): на кому? на чому?

This case indicates the location. This case is used only with a preposition.

The word “місцевий” is derived from Ukrainian “місце” (a place) and the question you can put is: on what? on whom? (but only the location, not the destination!)

The cat is sitting in the armchair . — У кріслі сидить кіт. (location, Locative case)

The cat jumped in (into) the box. — Кіт стрибнув у коробку . (destination, Accusative case)

(For more explanation on the location vs. destination topic look here)

When telling time (with a prepositon о (at)):

He came at nine o’clock . — Він прийшов о дев’ятій годині .

Vocative case (Кличний відмінок)

The vocative case doesn’t have any questions. It is used only in the direct speech when somebody is addressing somebody else.

“ Mother , put it please on the shelf.” — “ Мамо , поклади це, будь ласка, на полицю.”

In sanskrit language 8 [eight] type of cases are used.

ABLATIVE CASE indicates the Source. When you use this case you are «usually» indicating «from, on account of, since, because of, due to, owing to, etc.».

Wonderful site!! Thank you so much or creating it!

I am wondering if it can be said that the vocative case is used primarily, or exclusively, with what we know as the imperative tense: the tense used for commands. E.g.: Go there. Do that.

Also, in your initial explanation of the dative case, «who to give» is incorrect English, and ambiguously worded for English-speakers. Would it be correct to reformulate it, «give to whom»? When one reads «who to give», it is just as easy to understand that one is targeting the initiator of the action («who» being the nominative case pronoun), as its recipient, («whom», generally speaking, the accusative case in English.). It seems dative case is used to designate the recipient of the action, as the initiator would be in the nominative. Am I correct?

Similarly, in the accusative, it would be «search for whom».

In the locative, if the word order is changed, does the case change? E.g.- Would «Кіт сидить у кріслі.» be correct?

Once again: many, many thanks for this great site!!

Thank for your reply, Nigel!

I guess I overdid it with the literal translation as the questions did seem to be strange for English-speakers.

I am really grateful for your help in making the article look more natural! I have already made some corrections.

Now answering your questions:

It seems dative case is used to designate the recipient of the action, as the initiator would be in the nominative. Am I correct?

Yes, you are. Though it isn’t always that easy to say whether the object is the recipient of the action.

Космічному зонду вдалося залишити межі нашої галактики. — The space probe was able to leave the boundaries of our galaxy.

or even simpler:

Скільки тобі років? — How old are you ?

In the locative, if the word order is changed, does the case change? E.g.- Would «Кіт сидить у кріслі.» be correct?

And again, you are correct. Ukrainian language has a flexible word order.

ukrainiangrammar.com

The Eight Types of Interview Questions

Interviewing is not a science. Nor is it an art form. It is simply an imperfect form of human communication designed to increase the predictive validity of potential employer-employee relationships. And it is very imperfect.

There are basically eight types of questions you may face during the course of your interview:

  1. Credential verification questions
    This type of question includes «What was your GPA?» and «How long were you at _____?» Also known as resume verification questions. Its purpose is to objectively verify the depth of knowledge of the credentials in your background.
  2. Experience verification questions
    This type of question includes «What did you learn in that class?» and «What were your responsibilities in that position?» Its purpose is to subjectively evaluate features of your background.
  3. Opinion questions
    This type of question includes «What would you do in this situation?» and «What are your strengths and weaknesses?» Its purpose is to subjectively analyze how you would respond in a series of scenarios. The reality is that Tape #43 in your brain typically kicks in («I know the answer to that one!») and plays back the pre-programmed answer.
  4. Behavioral questions
    This type of question includes «Can you give me a specific example of how you did that?» and «What were the steps you followed to accomplish that task?» Its purpose is to objectively measure past behaviors as a predictor of future results.
  5. Competency questions
    This type of question includes «Can you give me a specific example of your leadership skills?» or «Explain a way in which you sought a creative solution to a problem.» Its purpose is to align your past behaviors with specific competencies which are required for the position.
  6. Brainteaser questions
    This type of question includes «What is 1000 divided by 73?» to «How many ping pong balls could fit in a Volkswagen?» to complex algorithms. Its purpose is to evaluate not only your mental math calculation skills, but also your creative ability in formulating the mathematical formula for providing an answer (or estimate, as can often be the case).
  7. Case questions
    This type of question includes problem-solving questions ranging from: «How many gas stations are there in Europe?» to «What is your estimate of the global online retail market for books?» Its purpose is to evaluate your problem-solving abilities and how you would analyze and work through potential case situations.
  8. Dumb questions
    This type of question includes «What kind of animal would you like to be?» and «What color best describes you?» Their purpose is to get past your pre-programmed answers to find out if you are capable of an original thought. There is not necessarily a right or wrong answer, since it is used primarily to test your ability to think on your feet.

Interviewing is a game in which I deal the cards, but you can stack the deck by preparing in advance. Then it’s up to you to play the cards in the best way possible.

It is interesting to note that the first three types of interview questions listed have a predictive validity for on the job success of just 10 percent. And 10 percent predictive validity is the same level that is generated from a simple resume review. Brainteaser questions increase the predictive validity to 15 percent (since they test intelligence, commonly a key competency for most positions) and case questions raise the predictive validity to 25 percent (and slightly higher for consulting positions). Behavioral and competency interviewing, on the other hand, yield a predictive validity of 55 percent. Still far from perfect, yet much more reliable for most interviewers. Interestingly, the first three question types are still the favored approach by most untrained interviewers, simply due to lack of experience. Behavioral and competency interviewing is gaining greater acceptance by trained interviewers because past performance is the most reliable indicator of future results, especially when it is tied to the specific competencies for the position.

collegegrad.com

3 Types of Interview Questions You Should Never Ask

When I was a job seeker, I dreaded interviews. I hated the trick questions, the brainteasers, and most of all, the questions I expected, but still couldn’t quite figure out how to answer (“What’s your biggest weakness?” was the death of me.)

But when I became a manager and had to interview people for my team, I found myself asking the same tricky and ineffective questions—because that’s all I knew. And that made my hiring decisions pretty tough; after all was said and done, I had no idea whether each candidate was a good fit for the role or not.

If you’re a first-time interviewer, don’t just wing it. Once you know the right questions to ask, you’ll be able to really gauge whether an applicant will be a good addition to your team. And that will not only save you from costly hiring mistakes, it’ll also help you recruit the best of the best.

So, learn from my mistakes: Here are three types of questions that I used to ask—and how I’ve learned to change them into something much more effective.

1. Questions You Already Know the Answers To

When I began my first corporate job, the HR department provided an interview guide that was a little, well, lacking. In fact, the only instructions it provided was to ask the candidate to describe his or her professional experience job-by-job. Following that, it suggested that I ask candidates about their educational background—the school they attended, the classes they took, and they major they decided on.

Ultimately, the guide allowed me to hear candidates repeat the information that I already held in my hands—their resume. And if I already knew about their background, why would I spend that valuable 30-minute interview having them repeat it to me when I had the opportunity to delve into so much more?

Of course, if there are holes in the applicant’s resume that I have questions about (like a gap in work history or an unclear bullet point), I ask. But when those few questions have been answered, I move on to questions that will give the applicant the chance to elaborate on the bullet points they’ve listed, like “Of the specific projects you mentioned, which contributed most to your professional development, and how?” or “What did you struggle with the most when, as you listed here, you had to work cross-departmentally with the finance and marketing teams?”

This will provide you with information that can’t be qualified into short, succinct bullet points—and help you more successfully predict how the potential hire would perform in your team.

2. Arbitrary Questions to Gauge Personality

In my first startup job, my management team and I wanted to make sure any new hires “fit” with the rest of the team. So we came up with what we thought were questions that would help us gauge the personality of each candidate: Think “What’s your favorite color?” and “If you could be any animal, what would it be?”

Well, it didn’t take many interviews to figure out that this strategy didn’t actually provide any helpful insight into the candidate’s personality—because most of the time, we were met with a hesitant, “Um, green?”

First, it’s important to realize that a candidate’s personality will shine though, no matter what question you ask. From a candidate who interjects questions and turns the interview into a conversation to one who thoroughly thinks through a question before thoughtfully answering it, if you just pay attention, you can learn a lot.

But if you want to dig even deeper, try curating some targeted questions about the specific personality traits you’re after. If you want employees who are spontaneous and go with the flow, try asking “Tell me about a time when your boss or a client changed a project when you were already halfway finished. What did you do?”

From this answer, you’ll gauge both personality and work ethic—and that’s a lot more valuable than a favorite color.

3. Questions That Don’t Provide the Info You Need

After years of being the interviewee, I felt a rush of power to be on the other side of the table—and that made it very temping to ask riddle-like questions (e.g., “How many tennis balls can you fit into a limousine?”) to catch the applicant off guard, instead of soliciting canned, rehearsed responses.

Sure, I got to see how well my candidates thought on their feet, but that didn’t really help me determine if they had the skills and abilities needed for the job—especially when I wasn’t hiring for a position that required that kind of analytical thought.

Other companies have also found that these infamous startup brainteasers aren’t always helpful in interviews. Lazslo Bock, Senior Vice President of People Operations at Google, recently admitted that he found brainteasers to be a complete waste of time, based on a study the company did on hiring practices. “They don’t predict anything,” he said. “They serve primarily to make the interviewer feel smart.”

Instead, he suggests using a structured behavioral interview, using the same questions to assess each applicant. To create that consistent rubric, one of the most helpful tips I’ve learned is to first determine the specific skills I was looking for in a candidate—then base questions around those skills.

For example, customer service associates should love talking to people, be able to remain calm during stressful situations, and know how to problem-solve creatively. So, compile a list of questions that will display their expertise (or lack thereof): “Describe a situation when you had to deal with someone who disagreed with you,” “Tell me about a time when you didn’t have the answer you needed and couldn’t find your manager—what did you do?” or “How do you prioritize when you’re juggling multiple clients and deadlines?”

Not only will these questions help you truly determine if the person will be able to fulfill the duties of the job—but since you’ll ask each candidate the same set of questions, you’ll be able to more easily compare answers.

Of course, interviewing strategies could go on for hundreds of pages—but the key takeaway is this: Determine exactly what you want in an employee, then ask questions that will actually help you gauge those things. You’ll have a much easier time pinpointing your must-hire employees when you’re not trying to decipher tennis ball calculations and the significance of the color blue.

www.themuse.com

Used to or Use to

A confusing point for both native and foreign English speakers is whether to use used to or use to in a phrase.

Used to is used to describe an action that was common or ongoing previously but no longer occurring.
Ex. This building used to be a hospital but has been converted into a school.

As a general rule, since the action described is in the past, it is correct to use the past-tense “used to”.
Ex. I used to like dogs, but I got bit by one last month and now they scare me.

The History of Halloween!

October is a month loved by many — mostly because of Halloween! Fill in the blanks with the past tense of the verbs in parentheses using the possible answers below.

Ordinal vs Cardinal Numbers

You may have heard your English teachers refer to two different kinds of numbers: cardinal numbers and ordinal numbers. If the difference is confusing for you, don’t worry! Continue reading below to learn when and how to use both types of numbers.

Cardinal Numbers
Cardinal numbers are primary numbers – that means that they show how many of something there are. These cannot be fractions or decimals, but have to be whole, counting numbers. These include one, two, three, four, five, six, etc.

Ex. Charlie has two (2) cats.

Parts of Speech

When your teacher talks about ‘parts of speech’, they’re talking about the building blocks of the language. It’s important to know the different ‘types’ of words as soon as possible, because these basics will make it easier to learn more complex pieces of language, and follow more advanced lessons when you’re getting ready to study English abroad!

Noun

What is a gerund and how do you use it?

A gerund is type of noun that is created by adding ‘-ing’ to a verb, for example:

Verb: Eat
Gerund (Noun): Eating

In some cases, we need to add an extra consonant before the -ing. This typically happens when the last consonant in the verb follows a single, short vowel:

Verb: Swim
Gerund (Noun): Swimming (Swim + m + ing)

Verb: Run
Gerund (Noun): Running (Run + n + ing)

While both of these words are used to show the negative, knowing how and when to use ‘no’ and ‘not’ is an important skill and can make a big difference in your English.

‘No’ is usually used to mean something like “not any” or “not a/an”, and usually refers to a noun. It is commonly used in the following situations:

Answering a yes or no question

E.g. Did you finish your homework? No, I didn’t finish my homework.

How to Use Apostrophes

While they might not look very important, apostrophes ( ‘ ) can really change the meaning of a phrase. To make sure that you’re using apostrophes properly, check out our explanation of how to use these little symbols.

Using an apostrophe to show possession/ownership

To show that something belongs to something (or someone) else, use an apostrophe after the noun and add the letter s:

John’s book (the book belongs to John)

The school’s courses (the courses belong to the school)

Well or Good?

What’s the difference between well and good?

Basically, use good to describe a thing and use well to describe an activity.

Good is an adjective

Use good to describe a noun.

You smell good. I like your perfume.
(good describes the noun you)

This is a good song.

What a good boy.

You speak good English.

Well is an adverb

10 sentences, 10 mistakes! But can you find them all?

Below are ten sentences. Each sentence has one mistake. Only choose one option per sentence.

Use the comments area to explain what the mistakes are, why they are mistakes and what the correct sentence should be!

Which question is the most difficult? We think number nine!

Am, Are and Is

English verbs have different forms in the simple present tense depending on the number and person of the subject. It is important that the verb and the subject agree. For the verb be these are:

Singular Present

I am 1st person

You are 2nd person

He is / she is / it is 3rd person

www.ecenglish.com

Types of questions in English

Different types of questions in English

There are many types of questions that the English language has. A sentence which asks a question is known as an Interrogative sentence. But every interrogative sentence is not the same. Here are the different types of questions in English.

1. Yes/No questions

This is the simplest type of question in English Language. These types of questions are such which expect the answers as either a Yes or No. Though, sometimes they can be accompanied with a reason but not always.

Example:
Can I have a glass of water?
Do you like mangoes?
Did you hear what I said?

2. Choice questions

These types of questions ask the other person to choose between two or more options, which are presented to them. These options are connected to each other using the conjunction OR.
Example:
Would you like to have chocolate or butter scotch?
Who do you like more, Harry or Ron or Hermione?
What do you prefer, dogs or cats?

3. ‘Wh’ questions

These are those questions that start with the words having ‘Wh’ in them. Such words are: Why, when, where, what, who, whose, which
Example:
What is your name?
When is the movie going to start?
Whose book is this?
There are other questions that do not start with ‘Wh’ but do fall in this category. These are the ‘how’ questions.
How are you?
How much is that shirt for?

4. Indirect Questions

These are also known as embedded questions. They are not asked directly but are embedded within another sentence or question. They are either polite questions or reported speech.
Example:
Could you tell me if the next train is on schedule? (indirect)
Is the next train on schedule? (Direct)
I was wondering if I can have a piece of the cake? (Indirect)
Can I have a piece of the cake? (Direct)
Do you know where I can find a water filter? (Indirect)
Where can I find a water filter? (Direct)

5. Rhetorical questions

These are such questions that do not expect any answers and are used for expression or stylist purposes. Such questions are mostly expressions or reactions. This is the reason why they are mostly written with an exclamation mark instead of a question mark.
Example:
Are you really serious?
What! I really got the job?
Girl- I think I will have to cancel the meeting today?
Boy- What? But everything is scheduled.

Understanding the four types of questions worksheet

1. Use the different words to form Yes/No questions:

You, Delhi, from, Are

  • From Delhi, are you?
  • You are from Delhi?
  • Are you from Delhi?
  • Right Answer Are you from Delhi?

    They, do, horses, have

    • Do they have horses?
    • Have horses, do they?
    • They horses, do have?
    • Right Answer Do they have horses?

      2. Form Wh/how questions:

      Dinner, is, what, for

    • What dinner is for?
    • What is for dinner?
    • What for is dinner?
    • Right Answer What is for dinner?

      Spell, name, your, you, do, how

    • How you do spell your name?
    • How your name do you spell?
    • How do you spell your name?
    • Right Answer How you do spell your name?

      3. Change these direct questions into indirect questions:

      • What do you mean by that?
      • What do you mean by that, tell me?
      • What you do mean by that, tell me?
      • Tell me, what do you mean by that?

      Right Answer Tell me, what do you mean by that?

    • What are your plans?
    • Would like to know your plans?
    • I would like to know what are your plans?
    • What plans do you have?
    • Right Answer I would like to know what are your plans?

      4. Which of these are rhetorical questions?

      A1. a. How are you? b. Sure, why not? (Right Answer)

      A2. a. Are you sad? b. Are you kidding me? (Right Answer)

      A3. a. Is there anything I can do? b. Where have you been all my life? (Right Answer)

      mocomi.com

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