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Like и as в английском языке

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Давайте поговорим о двух словах, которые в некоторых случаях могут вызвать затруднения. А именно поставить перед выбором – какое из них употребить в определенной ситуации. Речь идет о словах like и as в английском языке, которые могут переводиться следующим образом: как, какой, так как, похожий. Эти два слова могут быть различными частями речи, но нас будет интересовать использование like в качестве английского предлога и применение as в качестве не только предлога, но и союза. Чем же отличаются эти две части речи? Когда именно необходимо работать с одним предлогом, а когда с другим?

Like в английском языке

Как уже упоминалось, like является предлогом, а, значит, за этим словом следует имя существительное (like a star, like your business), местоимение (like you, like that) или герундий (like singing). Можно работать и с такой конструкцией — like somebody / something+verb-ing.

She is like her mother. – Она похожа на мать.

It’s just like him. – Это так похоже на него.

There’s nothing like walking to keep you fit. – Нет ничего полезнее для здоровья, чем ходьба.

Do you hear the noise? It sounds like a girl shouting. – Ты слышишь шум? Как будто девушка кричит.

The crowd buzzed like a swarm of bees. – Толпа гудела как рой пчел.

Вы можете задать резонный вопрос, а почему здесь используется like, а не as, ведь это слово тоже переводят «как»? Да, переводят, и значение у него такое же. Но есть маленькое, но существенное различие. Мы употребляем like, когда сравниваем две разные вещи. Например:

Her perfume smells like oranges. – Ее духи пахнут цитрусовыми. (но это духи, а не апельсины, это две разные вещи)

А as мы берем в том случае, когда мы говорим о чем-то или о ком-то одном и том же. Речь идет о чем-то настоящем, реальном. Часто это касается работы или способа использования какого-либо предмета. Например:

Several years ago I worked as a taxi-driver. – Несколько лет назад я работал таксистом. (я и таксист – это один человек)

We had so many bouquets of flowers that we decided to use two bottles as vases for them. – У нас было так много букетов цветов, что мы решили использовать две бутылки в качестве ваз для них. (бутылка и ваза – это один и тот же предмет)

В этом и заключается основное отличие like и as в английском языке.

Конечно, слово like — это не только предлог, но и всем нам известный глагол «нравиться». Но эта часть речи не является темой данной статьи, поэтому касаться ее мы не будем. О глаголах в английском языке вы можете прочитать в посвященным им статьям на нашем блоге.

As в английском языке

Слово as может быть не только предлогом, но и другими частями речи. Например, союзом. Как было сказано ранее, компанию слову like составляет имя существительное, местоимение или герундий. А вот as мы используем в том случае, если за ним следует подлежащее с глаголом, который обычно является сказуемым. Сравните следующие предложения:

He’s really a good runner. He runs like a lynx. – Он действительно хороший бегун. Он бегает как рысь. (после like идет существительное)

Jane’s decision seemed a good one, so we did as she advised. – Решение Джейн казалось подходящим, поэтому мы сделали так, как она советовала. (после as идет подлежащее со сказуемым – глаголом)

Обратите внимание на словосочетание as usual (как обычно), которое употребляется именно в таком виде. И запомните, в сочетании such as слово as имеет иное значение – «например».

I’ll phone you tonight as usual. – Я позвоню тебе сегодня вечером как обычно.

Several cities, such as Sevastopol and Moscow, are called hero-cities. – Несколько городов, например, Севастополь и Москва, имеют звание «город-герой».

Данная тема тесно связана с другими, описанными в статьях, на которые необходимо обратить внимание:

После ознакомления с ними рекомендуем пройти следующий тест: «Тест на употребление союзов в английском предложении».

engblog.ru

So, thus, therefore, and hence in English

Tip: See my list of the Most Common Mistakes in English. It will teach you how to avoid mis­takes with com­mas, pre­pos­i­tions, ir­reg­u­lar verbs, and much more (PDF Version).

Since you are reading this article in English, the odds are you already know what the conjunction “so” means. You probably also know that “thus”, “therefore”, and “hence” mean basically the same as “so”, and you are wondering what the difference is. If this is the case, this article is just for you.

Before moving on to the particular words, it should be noted that “thus”, “therefore”, and “hence” are all rather formal and much more common in writing than in everyday conversation, where they are almost always substituted by “so”.

“Thus” and “so”

The most important difference between “thus” and “so” is that “so” is a conjunction (meaning “and for that reason”, “and because of that”), whereas “thus” is an adverb (synonymous with “consequently”). For example, the sentence

can be rewritten using “thus” as follows:

“Thus” is usually separated from the rest of the sentence by commas, but the commas are often omitted if this would lead to three commas in a row (as in the third example).

The last example is not correct because “thus” cannot join two independent clauses.

“Thus” also has another meaning: “in this way”, “like this” (in which case it does not introduce a clause). For example:

The comma here was appropriate because what follows “thus” is not a clause. It is just a parenthetical expression extending the preceding clause.

Just like “thus”, “hence” is an adverb, not a conjunction, so it cannot join two independent clauses (note that it is more common to omit the commas around “hence” than after “thus” in formal writing):

“Hence” used in this sense is rather uncommon, and such usage persists mostly in specialized fields, such as scientific writing.

There is, however, another, more common meaning of “hence”, which substitutes a verb but is not a clause in itself and is always separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma:

As you can see, “hence” substitutes phrases such as “which leads to” or “which is the reason of”.

Finally, “therefore” is also an adverb meaning “as a logical consequence”. It is used mostly in argumentation when one statement logically follows from another, and it is common in scientific literature.

Again, style guides usually recommend to set it off with commas, but when this would break the natural flow of the sentence, most authors tend to omit the commas:

Some people argue that “therefore” functions perfectly well as a conjunction (like “so”) and separating it with a comma instead of a semicolon is acceptable. However, none of the major English dictionaries (such as Oxford English Dictionary or Merriam-Webster) endorses such usage.

Note that “therefore” does not sound natural when there is no apparent logical connection between the two statements, especially in an informal context. You should use “so” in such cases:

By the way, if you haven’t read my guide on how to avoid the most common mistakes in English, make sure to check it out; it deals with similar topics.

jakubmarian.com

Hyphens are used to link words and parts of words. They are not as common today as they used to be, but there are three main cases where you should use them:

Hyphens in compound words

Hyphens are used in many compound words to show that the component words have a combined meaning (e.g. a pick-me-up, mother-in-law, good-hearted) or that there is a relationship between the words that make up the compound: for example, rock-forming minerals are minerals that form rocks. But you don’t need to use them in every type of compound word.

Compound adjectives

Compound adjectives are made up of a noun + an adjective, a noun + a participle, or an adjective + a participle. Many compound adjectives should be hyphenated. Here are some examples:

With compound adjectives formed from the adverb well and a participle (e.g. well-known), or from a phrase (e.g. up-to-date), you should use a hyphen when the compound comes before the noun:

well-known brands of coffee

an up-to-date account

but not when the compound comes after the noun:

His music was also well known in England.

Their figures are up to date.

It’s important to use hyphens in compound adjectives describing ages and lengths of time: leaving them out can make the meaning ambiguous. For example, 250-year-old trees clearly refers to trees that are 250 years old, while 250 year old trees could equally refer to 250 trees that are all one year old.

Compound verbs

Use a hyphen when a compound formed from two nouns is made into a verb, for example:

Phrasal verbs

You should NOT put a hyphen within phrasal verbs — verbs made up of a main verb and an adverb or preposition. For example:

If a phrasal verb is made into a noun, though, you SHOULD use a hyphen:

Compound nouns

A compound noun is one consisting of two component nouns. In principle, such nouns can be written in one of three different ways:

In the past, these sorts of compounds were usually hyphenated, but the situation is different today. The tendency is now to write them as either one word or two separate words. However, the most important thing to note is that you should choose one style and stick to it within a piece of writing. Don’t refer to a playgroup in one paragraph and a play-group in another.

Hyphens joining prefixes to other words

Hyphens can be used to join a prefix to another word, especially if the prefix ends in a vowel and the other word also begins with one (e.g. pre-eminent or co-own). This use is less common than it used to be, though, and one-word forms are becoming more usual (e.g. prearrange or cooperate).

Use a hyphen to separate a prefix from a name or date, e.g. post-Aristotelian or pre-1900.

Use a hyphen to avoid confusion with another word: for example, to distinguish re-cover (= provide something with a new cover) from recover (= get well again).

Hyphens showing word breaks

Hyphens can also be used to divide words that are not usually hyphenated.

They show where a word is to be divided at the end of a line of writing. Always try to split the word in a sensible place, so that the first part does not mislead the reader: for example, hel-met not he-lmet; dis-abled not disa-bled.

Hyphens are also used to stand for a common second element in all but the last word of a list, e.g.:

You may see a yield that is two-, three-, or fourfold.

You can read more about when to use hyphens on the Oxford Dictionaries blog. Here you will find helpful tips on when to use hyphens and examples of when they should not be used.

You may also be interested in

en.oxforddictionaries.com

As soon as (conjunction)

We use as soon as to show that something happens immediately, i.e. ‘at the very moment another action is completed’, or ‘shortly after another action is completed’.

  • I’ll call you as soon as I arrive.
    [= ‘I will arrive and then I’ll call you immediately.’]
  • As soon as I have the information, I’ll tell you.
    [= ‘I’ll get the information and then I’ll tell you immediately.’]
  • As soon as I will . . .

    We do not use will with as soon as when speaking about the future:

    • I’m going to have a shower as soon as I will get home.
    • He will be back tomorrow; I’ll give him the message as soon as I will see him.
    • Position of as soon as in a sentence

      As soon as comes at the beginning of a subordinate clause. We can begin our sentence with either the subordinate clause or the main clause – the meaning is the same. Look at this example:

    • As soon as we got out the car, it started raining.
      [subordinate clause] [main clause]
      • It started raining as soon as we got out the car.
        [main clause] [subordinate clause]
      • Which tenses do we use with as soon as?

        We use the present simple with as soon as when we speak about repeated actions.

        As soon as he wakes up, he checks his phone for messages.

        We use the present simple with as soon as when we speak about the future. We do not use will.

        I’ll go to the shops as soon as it stops raining.

        We can also use the present perfect with as soon as when we speak about the future. The meaning is the same.

        I’ll go to the shops as soon as it has stopped / as soon as it stops raining.

        We use the past simple with as soon as when we speak about the past.

        We can also use the past perfect. The meaning is the same.

        They restarted the tennis match as soon as the rain stopped.
        They restarted the tennis match as soon as the rain had stopped.

        speakspeak.com

        Correlative conjunctions: neither/nor, either/or, both/and, . . .

        Correlative conjunctions are pairs such as neither . . . nor, not . . . only, and but . . . also.

        These conjunctions connect two balanced clauses, phrases, or words.

        The two elements that correlative conjunctions connect are usually similar in length and grammatical structure.

        Example sentences containing correlative conjunctions:

      • either . . . or
        We can go to either Greece or Spain for our holiday.
        It’s my final offer – you can either take it or leave it.
      • both . . . and
        Both rugby and football are popular in France.
        Both English and Welsh are spoken in Wales.
      • not only . . . but also
        Not only is he a professional footballer, but he’s also a successful businessman.
      • not . . . but
        There are not two but three Baltic states: Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.
        In sport, what counts is not the winning but the taking part.
    • neither . . . nor
      Neither Norway nor Switzerland is in the European Union.
      Marriage is neither heaven nor hell, it is simply purgatory.
      (Abraham Lincoln)
    • whether . . . or
      Whether you love them or hate them, you have to admit that the Rolling Stones are very popular.
      I’m totally confused – I don’t know whether I’m coming or going.
    • no sooner . . . than
      No sooner had I finished watering the garden than it started raining.
    • Subject-verb agreement

      Watch out – the verb which follows two subjects joined by or must agree with the second subject, NOT the first:

    • Either my brother or my mum look looks after our cat when we’re away on holiday.
    • Either my brother or my parents looks look after our cat when we’re away on holiday.
    • Neither the manager nor hisassistant are is here today.
    • Neither the manager nor hisassistants is are here today.
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